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Home / Agro Bisnis / Sebesar Teri, Tapi Diminati di Luar Negeri

Sebesar Teri, Tapi Diminati di Luar Negeri

Ikan Corydoras

 

Kecil-kecil cabe rawit. Itulah Ikan Corydoras. Sebab, meski bentuk dan panjang tubuhnya hampir sama dengan Ikan Teri, tapi harga jualnya tinggi dan peminatnya justru masyarakat mancanegara. Lebih dari itu, Indonesia merupakan tempat yang paling cocok untuk mengembangbiakkannya, di samping habitat aslinya

 

e-preneur.co. Berbicara tentang selera berarti berbicara tentang sesuatu yang tidak perlu dan tidak ada gunanya diperdebatkan. Seperti, selera dalam memelihara ikan.

Orang-orang Asia, khususnya Indonesia, gemar memelihara ikan dalam ukuran besar. Misalnya, Arwana, Koi, Koki, dan sebagainya. Sebaliknya dengan orang-orang mancanegara, terutama Eropa, justru lebih suka dengan ikan-ikan berukuran sangat kecil seperti Corydoras.

Corydoras yang merupakan ikan hias air tawar dengan habitat asli Perairan Amazon ini, memang memiliki ukuran tubuh yang mungil yaitu tidak lebih dari 5 cm–6cm. Tapi, satwa air yang satu ini kecil-kecil cabe rawit. Sebab, dilihat dari corak tubuhnya saja, ia diketahui mempunyai lebih dari 50 spesies/jenis dan diperkirakan masih ada ratusan spesies lagi yang belum ditemukan.

Selain itu, dengan ukuran yang imut yang justru dianggap eksotis oleh para penggemarnya, ikan yang berenang di dasar (bottom place) ini juga dikategorikan sebagai bukan ikan yang iseng atau jahat. Sehingga, aman ketika ditempatkan dalam satu akuarium dengan ikan-ikan hias lain.

Bahkan, ia mampu memperindah suasana akuarium. Karena, mengisi dasar akuarium yang biasanya kosong, secara berkelompok.

Sementara sebagai sebuah bisnis, sangat prospektif. Mengingat, seperti telah disebutkan di atas, peminatnya pasar ekspor. Terutama Eropa, lalu disusul Australia, Amerika, dan Asia.

Di sisi lain, dengan kondisi iklim yang mirip dengan Amerika Selatan, Bumi Nusantara ini menjadi pasar yang potensial bagi tumbuh kembang ikan-ikan dari Perairan Amazon. Termasuk, Corydoras. Apalagi, saat ini, tercatat baru sekitar 50 petani di seluruh Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, dan Bekasi yang “bermain” di ikan yang satu ini.

“Meski begitu, saya pribadi selalu bisa memenuhi permintaan. Dalam sejarah usaha saya ini, paling banyak pernah saya kirimkan sebanyak 2.000 ekor,” kata Imam Syafi’i, petani Corydoras di kawasan Depok.

Sedangkan dari sisi harga, sangat tergantung pada jenis, ukuran, dan tingkat kesulitan dalam pengembangbiakannya. Contoh, Albino yang merupakan spesies Corydoras yang berwarna putih keperakan dan dianggap paling mudah dikembangbiakan ini, minimal dihargai Rp250,- hingga Rp300,- per ekor dengan ukuran 1 inci (2,5 cm). Atau, meminjam istilah para eksportir ikan hias yaitu berukuran M (Medium) sekaligus ukuran yang paling diminati pasar.

Ikan Corydoras diminati oleh pasar ekspor

Ketika ukuran Corydoras Albino berubah menjadi L (Large), harganya pun bertambah menjadi sekitar Rp600,- sampai Rp700,- per ekor. Dan, ketika berukuran XL (Extra Large atau 5 cm) dihargai kurang lebih Rp1.000,- hingga Rp1.200,- per ekor.

Berbeda dengan Adolfoi, yang merupakan spesies Corydoras yang mempunyai tingkat kesulitan tinggi dalam pengembangbiakannya. Ia dihargai kurang lebih Rp25 ribu/ekor dengan ukuran M dan akan menjadi Rp30 ribu–Rp40 ribu per ekor ketika berukuran XL.

Dalam pengembangbiakannya, ikan bersungut ini matang kawin pada umur 1 tahun. Selanjutnya, ia akan terus-menerus kawin dan bertelur selama masa reproduksinya, yang berlangsung selama setahun. Dengan syarat, kebutuhan pangannya selalu tersedia.

Sesudah itu, ia mengalami degenerasi. Tapi, tetap dapat dijual laiknya ikan hias. Meski, tubuhnya sudah tidak singset lagi (sudah memanjang hingga 5 cm−6 cm, red.) alias sudah tidak memenuhi peraturan dalam pasar ekspor ikan hias.

Setiap kali bertelur, Corydoras betina akan mengeluarkan maksimal 100−150 butir telur di mana 80%-nya mampu menetas dan tumbuh dewasa. “Kegagalan menetas atau risiko kematian pada Corydoras disebabkan oleh kualitas air, sumber daya manusia, pemberian pakan yang asal-asalan, dan kualitas sperma yang buruk,” ujar sarjana perikanan dari Institut Pertanian Bogor, yang memulai usaha pengembangbiakan ikan hias sekitar tahun 1997−1998.

Dengan kata lain, ia melanjutkan, pengembangbiakan Corydoras gampang-gampang susah. Tapi, secara umum, pengembangbiakan tetap dapat dijalankan. Kendati, hasilnya akan berbeda-beda di mana sangat tergantung pada spesies, tingkat keasaman (ph) air, lokasi pengembangbiakan, dan proses pengembangbiakannya.

Contoh, Albino bisa beradaptasi dengan berapa pun tingkat keasaman air di mana ia dikembangbiakan. Seperti Bandung yang ph airnya 7–8 atau Depok yang ph airnya 5−6. Tapi, sebaliknya dengan Adolfoi.

“Saya memulai usaha Corydoras di kawasan Pondok Cabe. Di sana, kapasitas Adolfoi bisa mencapai 100–200 ekor setiap bulannya. Tapi, begitu usaha ini saya pindahkan ke Depok, kapasitas itu menurun dengan drastis,” ungkap pemilik 6−7 jenis Corydoras ini. Sekadar informasi, ph air yang ideal bagi Corydoras yaitu 6−8.

Namun, apa pun itu, pemilik 500−700 akuarium dengan 50 jenis ikan hias ini menambahkan, menjalankan usaha pengembangbiakan Corydoras tetaplah menguntungkan. Sebab, ikan sebesar cethul tapi hanya bisa dibeli oleh mereka dari kalangan menengah atas ini gampang menembus pasar mancanegara, harga tidak dapat dipermainkan, dan meski kapasitas penjualannya kecil namun menghasilkan pemasukan yang relatif besar.

 

Catatan

Pembesaran Ikan Corydoras (dari ukuran Small sampai Medium):

  • Dapat dilakukan di tempat seluas garasi.
  • Dapat dimulai dari Corydoras jenis Sterbai yang dalam ukuran S (Small) dihargai sekitar Rp200,- sampai Rp300,- per ekor. Sementara setelah berukuran M (Medium), dihargai kurang lebih Rp1.000,- sampai Rp1.250,- per ekor.
  • Waktu pembesaran dari ukuran S hingga M berlangsung selama dua bulan.
  • Biaya produksi dapat diminimalkan bila dikerjakan sendiri. Sedangkan biaya pemakaian air dan listrik tidak dihitung, karena berhubungan dengan pemakaian rumah tangga.
  • Risiko kematian 20%.

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